Chapter 9: Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments
- Define the term “support” and describe three reasons we use support in speeches.
- Explain four criteria used to evaluate support options.
- Describe how speakers can use statistics to support their speeches.
- Differentiate among the five types of definitions and among the four types of supportive examples.
- Explain how narratives can be used to support informative, persuasive, and entertaining speeches.
- Differentiate between the two forms of testimony and between the two types of analogies that can be used for support.
- Explain how to distinguish between useful and nonuseful forms of support.
- Describe the five ways support is used within a speech.
- Describe the purpose of a reverse outline.
- Explain why it is important to use support for every claim made within a speech.
- Evaluate the three-step process for using support within a speech.
making the connection between your support and your argument
set of logical premises leading to a clear conclusion
demonstrates the “best” way someone should behave within a specific context
predisposition or preconception of a topic that prevents impartiality
statement that can be clearly drawn from the provided premises
when you cite the actual words from a source with no changes
stories designed purely to delight an audience and transport them from their daily concerns
involves actually reading a quotation, paraphrasing a speaker or author’s words, summarizing a speaker or author’s ideas, providing numerical support, or showing pictographic support
Someone having considerable knowledge on a topic or considerable skill in accomplishing something
expresses the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors recommended by someone who is an acknowledged expert on a topic
given by someone who has direct contact with the phenomenon of your speech topic
a truth that is arrived at through the scientific process
compare two ideas or objects from two different classes, or a group that has common attributes, characteristics, qualities, or traits
provide information or explanations about a speaker’s topic
specifically states how a word is used within a specific language
compare two objects or ideas that clearly belong to the same class
stories that help an audience understand the speaker’s message
used to illustrate what not to do
used to explain what something is not
citing data and numbers within a speech
to take a source’s basic idea and condense it using your own words
motivate an audience to think in a specific manner about the word or term
stories used to persuade people to accept or reject a specific attitude, value, belief, or behavior
any drawn or visual representation of an object or process
used to clarify or clearly illustrate a principle, method, or phenomenon
statement that is designed to provide support or evidence
tool you can use to determine the adequacy of your speech’s support by starting with your conclusion and logically working backward through your speech to determine if the support you provided is appropriate and comprehensive
sentence or phrase in which you explain to your audience where the information you are using came from
mathematical subfield that gathers, analyzes, and makes inferences about collected data
assigned to a word or term by the person who coins that word or term for the first time
involves condensing or encapsulating the entire text as a form of support
range of strategies that are used to develop the central idea and specific purpose by providing corroborating evidence
when speakers attempt to find support that says exactly what they want it to say despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of evidence says the exact opposite
used to describe all parts related to a particular type of idea or object
speaker’s ability to present information in a striking, exciting manner