- Select a topic appropriate to the audience and occasion.
- Formulate a specific purpose statement that identifies precisely what you will do in your speech.
- Craft a thesis statement (central idea) that clearly and succinctly summarizes the argument you will make in your speech.
- Identify and arrange the main points of your speech according to one of many organizational styles discussed in this chapter.
- Connect the points of your speech to one another.
- Create a preparation and speaking outline for your speech.
organizational pattern that reasons from cause to effect or from effect to cause
main points are delivered according to when they happened and could be traced on a calendar or clock
all of the numbers or letters of points should represent the same idea
if you have an A, then you need a B; if you have a 1, then you need a 2, and so on
the main ideas in the speech
the repetition of grammatical structures that correspond in sound, meter, or meaning
used to work through the various components of your speech in an organized format
the part of the speech that literally tells the audience exactly what main points you will cover
clearly states what it is you would like to achieve
transition using just a word or short phrase
useful organization pattern when the main point’s importance is derived from its location or directional focus
much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts
“expresses both the topic and the general speech purpose in action form and in terms of the specific objectives you hope to achieve" (O'Hair, Stewart, & Rubenstein, 2004)
a hierarchy to the order of the points of a speech
single, declarative sentence that captures the essence or main point of your entire presentation
main points are developed according to the different aspects, subtopics or topics within an overall topic.
phrases or sentences that lead from one distinct- but-connected idea to another