“Breathe and Release”

a short-cut version of systematic de-sensitization appropriate for public speaking preparation


the system of beliefs and practices that produces a physical and mental standard that is projected as normal for a human being and labels deviations from it abnormal, resulting in unequal treatment and access to resources

Abstract Language

language that evokes many different visual images in the minds of your audience

Academic Books

books that are primarily written for other academics for informational and research purposes


learning and using a code that other group members will be able to recognize

Achievement-Oriented Leaders

strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and exhibiting confidence that group members can meet their high expectations

Action-Oriented Listeners

primarily interested in finding out what the speaker wants


this stage of group development occurs when a group dissolves because it has completed its purpose or goal, membership is declining and support for the group no longer exists, or it is dissolved because of some other internal or external cause

After Dinner Speeches

a humorous speech that makes a serious point


prejudice or discrimination against a particular age-group and especially the elderly


the repetition of initial consonant sounds in a sentence or passage


making the connection between your support and your argument


the succession of sentences beginning with the same word or group of words


the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced or parallel words, phrases, or grammatical structures

APA style

style scholars in the various social science fields (e.g., psychology, human communication, business) are more likely to use


how persons and groups should be referred to and addressed based on inclusiveness and context


set of logical premises leading to a clear conclusion

Ascribed Identity

personal, social, or cultural identities that are placed on us by others


the repetition of vowel sounds in a sentence or passage


are gaps in a logical sequence that listeners passively fill with their own ideas and opinions and may or may not be accurate


first sentence of a speech that is meant to pull the audience's attention to the speaker and topic at hand

Audience Analysis

the process of gathering information about the people in your audience so that you can understand their needs, expectations, beliefs, values, attitudes, and likely opinions

Avowed Identity

personal, social, or cultural identities that we claim for ourselves


after you’ve finished reading useful sources, see who those sources cited on their bibliographies or reference pages

Bar Graph

a graph designed to show the differences between quantities

Best Example

demonstrates the “best” way someone should behave within a specific context


predisposition or preconception of a topic that prevents impartiality


transitional phrase that lets the audience know the speech is coming to a close

Captive Audience

audiences that are required to be present or feel obligated to do so

Causal Pattern

organizational pattern that reasons from cause to effect or from effect to cause


the speaker's use of verbal and nonverbal communication


a person's reputation in regards to trustworthiness and goodness


a graphical representation of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered process


the assumption that people today are superior to people who lived in earlier eras (Russell, 1991)

Chronological Pattern

main points are delivered according to when they happened and could be traced on a calendar or clock


predictable and generally overused expressions; usually similes


changing from one way of speaking to another between or within interactions; happens most frequently in interracial communication

Coercive Power

comes from the ability of a group member to provide a negative incentive

Cognitive Dissonance

a psychological phenomenon where people confronted with conflicting information or viewpoints reach a state of dissonance (generally the disagreement between conflicting thoughts and/or actions), which can be very uncomfortable, and results in actions to get rid of the dissonance and maintain consonance

Cognitive Restructuring (CR)

an internal process through which individuals can deliberately adjust how they perceive an action or experience


attempts to reproduce what is in our minds in the minds of our audience

Communication Apprehension

an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons


demonstrated skill or knowledge in a particular area or topic


statement that can be clearly drawn from the provided premises


the subjective or personal meaning the word evokes in people together or individually

Consensus Rule

a decision-making technique in which all members of the group must agree on the same decision


to offer comfort in a time of grief


the stuff you add to the book

Content-Oriented Listeners

are interested in the message itself, whether it makes sense, what it means, and whether it’s accurate


considering the context of a public speech involves thinking about four dimensions: physical, temporal, social-psychological, and cultural (DeVito, 2009)


being conversant is the condition of being able to discuss an issue intelligently with others


all of the numbers or letters of points should represent the same idea


the perception the audience holds of you regarding your competence and character

Critical Listening

using careful, systematic thinking and reasoning to see whether a message makes sense in light of factual evidence

Cultural Dimension

final context dimension Joseph DeVito mentions; we interact with others from different cultures, misunderstandings can result from differing cultural beliefs, norms, and practices

Cultural Identity

based on socially constructed categories that teach us a way of being and include expectations for social behavior or ways of acting


the ongoing negotiation of learned and patterned beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors


“sensing (for example, hearing or seeing) a source’s message, interpreting the source’s message, evaluating the source’s message, and responding to the source’s message” (Wrench, McCroskey & Richmond, 2008)

Demographic Analysis

compiling information, such as the gender, age range, marital status, race, and ethnicity of the people in your audience

Demographic Information

information such as the gender, age range, marital status, race, and ethnicity of the people in your audience


the objective or literal meaning shared by most people using the word

Designated Leaders

officially recognized in their leadership role and may be appointed or elected by people inside or outside the group


drawings or sketches that outline and explain the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen


a relationship between two opposing concepts that constantly push and pull one another

Dialogic Theory of Public Speaking

based on three overarching principles that dialogue is more natural than monologue, meanings are in people not words, and contexts and social situations impact perceived meanings


communication between two or more persons


dualistic ways of thinking that highlight opposites, reducing the ability to see gradations that exist in between concepts

Digital Divide

refers to the unequal access to technology and related skills that exists in much of the world

Direct Quotation

when you cite the actual words from a source with no changes

Directive Leaders

provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures


occurs when someone purposefully twists information in a way that detracts from its original meaning


a key dimension of audience membership and, therefore, of audience analysis; while the term “diversity” is often used to refer to racial and ethnic minorities, it is important to realize that audiences can be diverse in many other ways as well


if you have an A, then you need a B; if you have a 1, then you need a 2, and so on

Dominant Identities

historically had and currently have more resources and influence


consciousness of being or belonging to an elite

Emergent Leaders

gain status and respect through engagement with the group and its task and are turned to by others as a resource when leadership is needed


what a source does when “creating a message, adapting it to the receiver, and transmitting it across some source-selected channel” (Wrench, McCroskey & Richmond, 2008)


information sources that provide short, very general information about a topic


those outcomes that you desire to achieve

Entertaining Narratives

stories designed purely to delight an audience and transport them from their daily concerns

Entertaining Speaking

involves an array of speaking occasions ranging from introductions to wedding toasts, to presenting and accepting awards, to delivering eulogies at funerals and memorial services in addition to after-dinner speeches and motivational speeches


reduce/overlook important variations within a group

Ethical Listening

rests heavily on honest intentions; we should extend to speakers the same respect we want to receive when it’s our turn to speak

Ethical Pyramid

developed by Elspeth Tilley; involved three basic concepts: intent, means and ends

Ethnic Identity

a group an individual identifies with based on a common culture


the attitude that one's own group, ethnicity, or nationality is superior to others


the term Aristotle used to refer to what we now call credibility: the perception that the speaker is honest, knowledgeable, and rightly motivated


a speech given in honor of someone who has died


language devices often used to make something unpleasant sound more tolerable


fourth stage of the listening process; judging the value of the message


involves actually reading a quotation, paraphrasing a speaker or author’s words, summarizing a speaker or author’s ideas, providing numerical support, or showing pictographic support


a task-related role that functions to keep the group on track toward completing its task by managing the agenda and setting and assessing goals in order to monitor the group’s progress

Expert Power

comes from knowledge, skill, or expertise that a group member possesses and other group members do not

Expert Testimony

expresses the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors recommended by someone who is an acknowledged expert on a topic


Someone having considerable knowledge on a topic or considerable skill in accomplishing something

Extemporaneous Speaking

the presentation of a carefully planned and rehearsed speech, spoken in a conversational manner using brief notes

Eyewitness Testimony

given by someone who has direct contact with the phenomenon of your speech topic


a truth that is arrived at through the scientific process


when a receiver sends a message back to a source


an intellectual and social movement advanced women’s rights and our overall understanding of gender

Figurative Analogies

compare two ideas or objects from two different classes, or a group that has common attributes, characteristics, qualities, or traits

Figurative Language

language that does not use comparisons like similes and metaphors

Focus Group

a small group of people who give you feedback about their perceptions


group members begin to reduce uncertainty associated with new relationships and/or new tasks through initial interactions that lay the foundation for later group dynamics

Frame of Reference

the unique set of perspectives, experience, knowledge, and values belonging to every individual

Free Speech

according to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law, free speech entails “the right to express information, ideas, and opinions free of government restrictions based on content and subject only to reasonable limitations (as the power of the government to avoid a clear and present danger) esp. as guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution” (Freedom of speech)


manages the flow of conversation in a group in order to achieve an appropriate balance so that all group members get to participate in a meaningful way


an identity based on internalized cultural notions of masculinity and femininity that is constructed through communication and interaction.

General-Interest Periodicals

magazines and newsletters published on a fairly systematic basis


occurs when we attempt to survey a small number of people in the hopes of representing a much larger group of people


a complex system of interconnecting structural and cultural forces that aid the spread of ideas and technologies and influence the social and economic organization of societies


a pictorial representation of the relationships of quantitative data using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like

Group Climate

the relatively enduring tone and quality of group interaction that is experienced similarly by group members

Group Cohesion

the commitment of members to the purpose of the group and the degree of attraction among individuals within the group

Group Fantasies

verbalized references to events outside the “here and now” of the group, including references to the group’s past, predictions for the future, or other communication about people or events outside the group

Group Socialization

the process of teaching and learning the norms, rules, and expectations associated with group interaction and group member behaviors


a negative group phenomenon characterized by a lack of critical evaluation of proposed ideas or courses of action that results from high levels of cohesion and/or high conformity pressures


of or relating to the sense of taste


group role played by members who help manage the various types of group conflict that emerge during group communication


an accidental and automatic brain response to sound that requires no effort

Hero Speech

a motivational speech given by someone who is considered a hero in society


a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of female–male sexuality and relationships

Heterosexist Language

language that assumes the heterosexual orientation of a person or group of people


intentional exaggeration for effect


a word or phrase where the meaning cannot be predicted from normal, dictionary definitions


language that makes the recipient smell, taste, see, hear, and feel a sensation; also known as sensory language

Impromptu Speaking

the presentation of a short message without advance preparation

Information Power

comes from a person’s ability to access information that comes through informal channels and well-established social and professional networks

Information Provider

group role including behaviors that are more evenly shared than in other roles, as ideally, all group members present new ideas, initiate discussions of new topics, and contribute their own relevant knowledge and experiences

Information Seeker

asks for more information, elaboration, or clarification on items relevant to the group’s task

Informative Narratives

provide information or explanations about a speaker’s topic

Informative Speaking

the primary purpose of informative presentations is to share one’s knowledge of a subject with an audience

Informative Speech

a speech based entirely and exclusively on facts and whose main purpose is to inform rather than persuade, amuse, or inspire


to be an ethical listener or speaker, one must begin with ethical intentions; for example, if we agree that honesty is ethical, it follows that ethical speakers will prepare their remarks with the intention of telling the truth to their audiences

Interactional Model of Public Speaking

a theory of public speaking that includes the source, channel, receiver, encoding, decoding, and feedback

Intercultural Communication

communication between people with differing cultural identities

Intercultural Communication Competence

he ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in various cultural contexts


sharing a common purpose and a common fate

Interlibrary Loan

a process where librarians are able to search other libraries to locate the book a researcher is trying to find

Interpersonal Conflict

emerges from conflict between individual members of the group


helps manage the diversity within a group by mediating intercultural conflict, articulating common ground between different people, and generally creating a climate where difference is seen as an opportunity rather than as something to be feared


asks us to acknowledge that we each have multiple cultures and identities that intersect with each other


a one-on-one exchange in which you ask questions of a respondent


the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect


a statement or claim that cannot be argued


language used in a specific field that may or may not be understood by others


to express grief or sorrow


any formal system of gestures, signs, sounds, and symbols used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, either through written, enacted, or spoken means


a group role that is associated with a high-status position and may be formally or informally recognized by group members


a complex of beliefs, communication patterns, and behaviors that influence the functioning of a group and move a group toward the completion of its task


a small raised surface, usually with a slanted top, where a speaker can place notes during a speech

Legitimate Power

power that flows from the officially recognized position, status, or title of a group member

Lexical Definition

specifically states how a word is used within a specific language

Line Graph

a graph designed to show trends over time

Linear Model of Public Speaking

a model of public speaking that includes the source, channel, and receiver


at its best, is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker

Listening or Receiver Apprehension

the fear that you might be unable to understand the message or process the information correctly or be able to adapt your thinking to include the new information coherently

Literal Analogies

compare two objects or ideas that clearly belong to the same class

Literal Language

language that does not use comparisons like similes and metaphors


logical and organized arguments and the credible evidence to support the arguments within a speech; arguments based on logic

Main Points

the main ideas in the speech

Majority Rule

a commonly used decision-making technique in which a majority (one-half plus one) must agree before a decision is made

Man-linked Terms

Terms such as “fireman” or “policemen” that incorrectly identify a job as linked only to a male.

Manuscript Speaking

the word-for-word iteration of a written message


the tools or behaviors we employ to achieve a desired outcome

Media Convergence

refers to the merging of technologies that were previously developed and used separately

Media Imperialism

the domination of other countries through exported media and the values and ideologies they contain

Media Literacy

involves our ability to critique and analyze the potential impact of the media


visual images or items to help the speaker communicate or clarify their message

Memorized Speaking

the rote recitation of a written message that the speaker has committed to memory

Mental Dialogue

an imagined conversation the speaker has with a given audience in which the speaker tries to anticipate what questions, concerns, or issues the audience may have to the subject under discussion


the verbal and/or nonverbal communication conveyed by the speaker


a figure of speech that identifies something as being the same as some unrelated thing for rhetorical effect, thus highlighting the similarities between the two

Minority Rule

a decision-making technique in which a designated authority or expert has final say over a decision and may or may not consider the input of other group members

MLA style

the style scholars in the various humanities fields (e.g., English, philosophy, rhetoric) are more likely to use


a prolonged speech by a single person


too little variation in pitch

Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

organizational pattern used for persuasive speeches involving five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action

Motivational Speech

a speech designed not only to make an audience experience emotional arousal (fear, sadness, joy, excitement) but also to motivate the audience to do something with that emotional arousal


stories that help an audience understand the speaker’s message

Negative Example

used to illustrate what not to do


a wide range of distractions that can inhibit an audience member from accurately attending to a speaker’s speech

Nominal Group Technique

guides decision making through a four-step process that includes idea generation and evaluation and seeks to elicit equal contributions from all group members

Non-Dominant Identities

historically had and currently have less resources and influence


used to explain what something is not

Nonverbal Communication

the transfer of information through the use of body language including eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and more


during this stage of group development, the practices and expectations of the group are solidified, which leads to more stability, productivity, and cohesion within the group

Note of Finality

last statement that wraps up your entire presentation and lets the audience know the speech is finished

Numerical Support

citing data and numbers within a speech


of or relating to the sense of smell


a personal view, attitude, or belief about something


the repetition of grammatical structures that correspond in sound, meter, or meaning


to take a source’s basic idea and condense it using your own words

Participative Leaders

work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions


the use of emotions such as anger, joy, hate, desire for community, and love to persuade the audience of the rightness of a proposition; arguments based on emotion

People-Oriented Listeners

interested in the speaker; listens to the message in order to learn how the speaker thinks and how they feel about their message


During this stage of group development, group members work relatively smoothly toward the completion of a task or achievement of a purpose

Personal Identity

include the components of self that are primarily intrapersonal and connected to our life experiences


to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade others to change their beliefs, take an action, or reconsider a decision


symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an issue through the transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice

Persuasive Definitions

motivate an audience to think in a specific manner about the word or term

Persuasive Narratives

stories used to persuade people to accept or reject a specific attitude, value, belief, or behavior

Persuasive Speaking

the primary purpose of persuasive speaking is to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade others to change their beliefs, take an action, or reconsider a decision

Physical Dimension

involves the real or touchable environment where communication occurs

Physical Noise

consists of various sounds in an environment that interfere with a source’s ability to hear

Physiological Noise

consists of distractions to a speaker’s message caused by a listener’s own body


a graph using iconic symbols to dramatize differences in amounts

Pictographic Support

any drawn or visual representation of an object or process

Pie Graph

a graph designed to show proportional relationships within sets of data


the relative highness or lowness of your voice


using someone else’s words or ideas without giving credit

Positive Example

used to clarify or clearly illustrate a principle, method, or phenomenon


statement that is designed to provide support or evidence

Preparation Outline

used to work through the various components of your speech in an organized format

Presentation Aids

the resources beyond the speech words and delivery that a speaker uses to enhance the message conveyed to the audience


a sentence that provides a clear outline of the main points that will be discussed in the presentation

Preview Statement

the part of the speech that literally tells the audience exactly what main points you will cover

Primary Groups

long-lasting groups that are formed based on relationships and include significant others

Primary Research

carried out to discover or revise facts, theories, and applications and is reported by the person conducting the research

Primary Tension

tension (arising amongst group members) based on uncertainty that is a natural part of initial interactions

Problem Question

a question that guides the group as it generates possible solutions

Problem Statement

a single sentence that summarizes the problem a group is trying to solve

Procedural Conflict

in this type of conflict, group members differ in their beliefs about how something should be done

Project Life Cycle

The phases that connect the beginning of a project to its end


central idea statement in a persuasive speech; a statement made advancing a judgment or opinion

Psychographic Analysis

compiling information on the beliefs, attitudes, and values that your audience members embrace

Psychographic Information

involves the beliefs, attitudes, and values that your audience members embrace

Psychological Noise

consists of distractions to a speaker’s message caused by a receiver’s internal thoughts

Purpose Statement

clearly states what it is you would like to achieve


Powerless words such as “around” or “about” that make your sentences less definitive.


a socially constructed category based on differences in appearance that has been used to create hierarchies that privilege some and disadvantage others


a belief that race is a fundamental determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.


how quickly or slowly you say the words of your speech


the audience members listening to the speech

Receiver Biases

can refer to two things: biases with reference to the speaker and preconceived ideas and opinions about the topic or message


first stage of the listening process; the intentional focus on hearing a speaker’s message, which happens when we filter out other sources so that we can isolate the message and avoid the confusing mixture of incoming stimuli


takes notes on the discussion and activities that occur during a group meeting

Referent Power

comes from the attractiveness, likeability, and charisma of the group member


Customary words or phrases used in different geographic regions.

Relational-Oriented Groups

formed to promote interpersonal connections and are more focused on quality interactions that contribute to the well-being of group members

Religious Speech

a speech designed to incorporate religious ideals into a motivational package to inspire an audience into thinking about or changing aspects of their religious lives


third stage of the listening process; begins with listening; if you can’t remember something that was said, you might not have been listening effectively


scholarly investigation into a topic in order to discover, revise, or report facts, theories, and applications

Research Log

step-by-step account of the process of identifying, obtaining, and evaluating sources for a specific project, similar to a lab note-book in an experimental setting


fifth and final stage of the listening process; also referred to as "feedback;" the stage at which you indicate your involvement; almost anything you do at this stage can be interpreted as feedback

Reverse Outline

tool you can use to determine the adequacy of your speech’s support by starting with your conclusion and logically working backward through your speech to determine if the support you provided is appropriate and comprehensive

Reward Power

comes from the ability of a group member to provide a positive incentive as a compliance-gaining strategy


a humorous speech designed to both praise and good-naturedly insult a person being honored


the degree to which we are aware of our identities

Scrutiny Fear

anxiety resulting from being in a situation where one is being watched or observed, or where one perceives themselves as being watched

Secondary Groups

characterized by less frequent face-to-face interactions, less emotional and relational communication, and more task-related communication than primary groups

Secondary Research

research carried out to discover or revise facts, theories, and applications—similar to primary research—but it is reported by someone not involved in conducting the actual research

Secondary Tension

emerges after groups have passed the forming stage of group development and begin to have conflict over member roles, differing ideas, and personality conflicts

Selective Exposure

the decision to expose ourselves to messages that we already agree with, rather than those that confront or challenge us

Self-Centered Roles

group role behaviors that divert attention from the task to the group member exhibiting the behavior

Semantic Noise

occurs when a receiver experiences confusion over the meaning of a source’s word choice


sentence or phrase in which you explain to your audience where the information you are using came from


based on biological characteristics, including external genitalia, internal sex organs, chromosomes, and hormones (Wood, 2005)


prejudice or discrimination based on sex

Sexist Language

language that unnecessarily identifies sex or linguistically erases females through the use of man-linked terms and/or the use of “he” or “man” as generics

Sexual Orientation

refers to a person’s primary physical and emotional sexual attraction and activity

Sign Post

transition using just a word or short phrase


a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind (specifically using the terms “like” or “as”), used to make a description more emphatic or vivid

Situational Analysis

compiling information on characteristics related to the specific speaking situation


a type of language that consists of words and phrases that are specific to a subculture or group that others may not understand

Small Group Communication

interactions among three or more people who are connected through a common purpose, mutual influence, and a shared identity

Social Cohesion

the attraction and liking among group members

Social constructionism

a view that argues the self is formed through our interactions with others and in relationship to social, cultural, and political contexts (Allen, 2011)

Social Identity

self that are derived from involvement in social groups with which we are interpersonally committed

Social Learning Theory

claims that media portrayals influence our development of schemata or scripts, especially as children, about different groups of people

Social Loafing

when one group member contributes less to the group than other members or than they would if working alone

Social-Psychological Dimension

refers to “status relationships among participants, roles and games that people play, norms of the society or group, and the friendliness, formality, or gravity of the situation” (DeVito, 2009)

Socioeconomic Status

refers to a combination of characteristics including income, wealth, level of education, and occupational prestige


the person who is giving the speech

Spatial Pattern

useful organization pattern when the main point’s importance is derived from its location or directional focus

Speaking Outline

much more succinct than the preparation outline and includes brief phrases or words that remind the speakers of the points they need to make, plus supporting material and signposts

Special Occasion Speech

a speech designed to address and engage the context and audience’s emotions on a specific occasion

Special-Interest Periodicals

magazines and newsletters that are published for a narrower audience

Specific Purpose Statement

“expresses both the topic and the general speech purpose in action form and in terms of the specific objectives you hope to achieve" (O'Hair, Stewart, & Rubenstein, 2004)

Speech of Acceptance

a speech given by the recipient of a prize or honor

Speech of Commencement

a speech designed to recognize and celebrate the achievements of a graduating class or other group of people

Speech of Dedication

a speech delivered to mark the unveiling, opening, or acknowledging of some landmark or structure

Speech of Farewell

a speech allowing someone to say goodbye to one part of his or her life as he or she is moving on to the next part of life

Speech of Introduction

a mini-speech given by the host of a ceremony that introduces another speaker and his or her speech

Speech of Presentation

a brief speech given to accompany a prize or honor


Language such as “male nurse” that suggests a person is deviating from the “normal” person who
would do a particular job and implies that someone’s sex is relevant to a particular job.


derived from the external situation within which individuals find themselves


mathematical subfield that gathers, analyzes, and makes inferences about collected data


taking for granted that people with a certain characteristic in common have the same likes, dislikes, values, and beliefs

Stipulative Definition

assigned to a word or term by the person who coins that word or term for the first time


during this stage of group development, conflict emerges as people begin to perform their various roles, have their ideas heard, and negotiate where they fit in the group’s structure


components or features of a literary composition or oral presentation that have to do with the form of expression rather than the content expressed (e.g., language, punctuation, parenthetical citations, and endnotes)


a hierarchy to the order of the points of a speech

Substantive Conflict

focuses on group members’ differing beliefs, attitudes, values, or ideas related to the purpose or task of the group

Success Speech

a speech given by someone who has succeeded in some aspect of life and is giving back by telling others how they too can be successful


clear sentence that restates the preview statement in past tense, outlining the main points that were addressed in the speech

Summary of Support

involves condensing or encapsulating the entire text as a form of support


range of strategies that are used to develop the central idea and specific purpose by providing corroborating evidence


when speakers attempt to find support that says exactly what they want it to say despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of evidence says the exact opposite


group role characterized by communication behaviors that encourage other group members and provide emotional support as needed

Supportive Leaders

show concern for their followers’ needs and emotions. They want to support group members’ welfare through a positive and friendly group climate


a set of questions administered to several—or, preferably, many—respondents

Survivor Speech

a speech given by someone who has survived a personal tragedy or who has faced and overcame serious adversity

Symbolic Convergence

the sense of community or group consciousness that develops in a group through non-task-related communication such as stories and jokes


the potential for gains in performance or heightened quality of interactions when complementary group members or member characteristics are added to existing ones

Systematic De-sensitization

a multi-stage, therapeutic regimen to help patients deal with phobias through coping mechanisms

Tag Questions

Powerless language exemplified by ending statements with questions such as “Don’t you think?”
or “Don’t you agree?”

Target Audience

the members of an audience the speaker most wants to persuade and who are likely to be receptive to persuasive messages

Task Cohesion

the commitment of group members to the purpose and activities of the group

Task-Oriented Groups

formed to solve a problem, promote a cause, or generate ideas or information


task-oriented groups in which members are especially loyal and dedicated to the task and other group members

Temporal Dimension

“has to do not only with the time of day and moment in history but also with where a particular message fits into the sequence of communication events” (DeVito, 2009)

Tension Releaser

someone who is naturally funny and sensitive to the personalities of the group and the dynamics of any given situation and who uses these qualities to manage the frustration level of the group


books that are written about a segment of content within a field of academic study and are written for undergraduate or graduate student audiences

Theoretical Definitions

used to describe all parts related to a particular type of idea or object


a proposed explanation for a phenomenon that can be tested scientifically


single, declarative sentence that captures the essence or main point of your entire presentation

Thought Leader

individuals who contribute new ideas; to achieve thought leader status, individuals must communicate their ideas to others through both writing and public speaking

Time-Oriented Listeners

prefer a message that gets to the point quickly


a speech designed to congratulate, appreciate, or remember


the attitude of a given artifact (humorous, serious, light-hearted, etc.)

Topical Pattern

main points are developed according to the different aspects, subtopics or topics within an overall topic.


anxiety that is aligned with, or a manifestation of, an individual’s personality

Transactional Model of Public Speaking

basic premise of the transactional model is that individuals are sending and receiving messages at the same time


an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or expression do not match the gender they were assigned by birth

Transitional Statements

phrases or sentences that lead from one distinct- but-connected idea to another

Two-Tailed Arguments

persuasive technique in which a speaker brings up a counter-argument to their own topic and then directly refutes the claim


second stage of the listening process; we attempt to learn the meaning of the message, which is not always easy

Unproductive Roles

group role behaviors that prevent or make it more difficult for the group to make progress

Verbal Communication

refers to the production of spoken language to send an intentional message to a listener

Virtual Groups

meet exclusively or primarily online to achieve their purpose or goal

Virtual groups

speaker’s ability to present information in a striking, exciting manner

Vocal Cue

the subtle but meaningful variations in speech delivery, which can include the use of pitch, tone, volume, and pace

Vocalized Pauses

sounds in pauses to make it appear that we haven’t actually paused. Another term for them is "fillers" or “nonfluencies"


the relative softness or loudness of your voice

Voluntary Audience

gathers because they want to hear the speech, attend the event, or participate in an event


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