There are several models that can be used to scaffold a systematic approach to the design and development of instructional materials and learning experiences. Each model has its unique features, but there is also a great deal of overlap. The 5-minute video linked below provides an overview of several models. The remainder of the chapter highlights a few important models in more detail.
The ADDIE Framework
ADDIE is an acronym that stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. This framework outlines a systematic approach to designing learning experiences. It is often used as-is to outline the instructional design process, but its principles also underlie the more specific instructional design models highlighted below.
For an overview of the ADDIE process, watch the following five videos:
- Analysis: https://youtu.be/JZdv5lrJs4U?list=PL20E84CD77B301A20
- Design: https://youtu.be/BhLIiF9QyTo?list=PL20E84CD77B301A20
- Development: https://youtu.be/VzYDNWhQWYA?list=PL20E84CD77B301A20 (3:19 minutes)
- Implementation: https://youtu.be/CBoI0wBo4vw?list=PL20E84CD77B301A20
- Evaluation: https://youtu.be/q8yky6-P1Uw?list=PL20E84CD77B301A20
Dick & Carey
One of the best known, foundational theories of instructional design is the model developed by Walter Dick and Lou Carey developed a comprehensive instructional design model in the late 1970s. See the following five-minute video for an overview of the Dick and Carey model:
You can also read more about this model at
Participatory Design Processes
We have already discussed the importance of understanding your target learners when designing and educational experience. Learner analysis is, for example, an important component of the analysis phase of the ADDIE framework. This approach still maintains a certain separation between designer and end user or learner; the designer provides something and the learner receives the product the designer created.
Participatory design is a model that breaks down the designer-user separation and brings the end user into the process from the ground up. The following ~18 minute video provides an excellent introduction to participatory design:
(Note that this video makes reference to a different design model – the double diamond – than the ones we have reviewed here. As instructional designers we would plug in an ID model or framework, such as ADDIE, in place of the double diamond.)