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Introduction (Updated for the Fourth Edition)
Heather Wilburn, Ph.D
A Note for Instructors and Others Using this Open Resource
Read Online or Download This Book
LOGOS: Critical Thinking, Arguments, and Fallacies
An Introduction to Russell’s “The Value of Philosophy”
Heather Wilburn, Ph.D.
The Value of Philosophy
Philosophy: Who Needs It
An Introduction to Plato's Apology
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Edited by: Timothy Robbins
Unit 1 Supplemental Readings
An Introduction to Plato's "Allegory of the Cave"
The Allegory of the Cave
A Critical Comparison between Plato’s Socrates and Xenophon’s Socrates in the Face of Death
Dr. Pankaj Singh
Plato's "Simile of the Sun" and "The Divided Line"
Aurelius Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
An Introduction to Aristotle's Metaphysics
Selected Readings from Aristotle's Categories
An Introduction to ‘Self and Ātman’
Self and Atman (from Bhagavad Gita)
Reality and Time (from Bhagavad Gita)
Dhamma: What the Buddha Taught
An Introduction to "What is A Chariot? (What are we?)"
What is a Chariot? (And what are we?)
We are Our Awareness
Bundle Theory of the Self
Ship of Theseus
Selected Reading from St. Augustine's "The City of God"
Selected Reading from St. Augustine's "On the Holy Trinity"
Augustine’s Treatment of the Problem of Evil
Rocco A. Astore
Aquinas's Five Proofs for the Existence of God
St. Mary's Press
St. Thomas Aquinas – On the Five Ways to Prove God’s Existence
St. Thomas Aquinas
Selected Reading's from William Paley's "Natural Theology"
Selected Readings from St. Anselm's Proslogium; Monologium: An Appendix In Behalf Of The Fool By Gaunilo; And Cur Deus Homo
David Hume– On the Irrationality of Believing in Miracles
Selections from Pascal's Pensées
William James – On the Will to Believe
Unit 2 Supplemental Readings
An Introduction to Western Epistemology
Selected Readings from Russell's The Problems of Philosophy
Selections from A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
Why Time Is In Your Mind: Transcendental Idealism and the Reality of Time
Selected Readings on Immanuel Kant's Transcendental Idealism
Selections from "Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking" by William James
Jean Piaget on Reasoning and Logic
Dr. Mark A. Winstanley
Johnson-Laird on Reasoning and Logic
Unit 3 Supplemental Readings
Slave and Master Morality (From Chapter IX of Nietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil)
Lee Archie and John G. Archie
The Ring of Gyges
A Little Book of Stoicism
St. George Stock
The Simple and Happy Life
An Introduction to Western Ethical Thought: Aristotle, Kant, Utilitarianism
Aristotelian Virtue Ethics
Andrew Fisher and Mark Dimmock
Reason and Emotion in the Moral Life
An Introduction to Kant's Moral Theory
Selected Readings from Kant's Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
The Categorical Imperative
Andrew Fisher; Mark Dimmock; and Henry Imler
A Pig, a Fool, and Socrates
John Stuart Mill
Religious Ethical Systems
Andrew Fisher; Mark Dimmock; Henry Imler; and Kristin Whaley
God, Morality, and Religion
Letter from the Birmingham City Jail
Unit 4 Supplemental Readings
Plato's Republic - Book II
Selected Readings from Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan"
Selected Readings from John Locke's "Second Treatise of Government"
Rousseau’s Social Contract Theory
Selected Readings from Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "The Social Contract & Discourses"
A Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
John Rawls and the “Veil of Ignorance”
John Stuart Mill – On The Equality of Women
Mary Wollstonecraft – On the Rights of Women
On Marxism and Value
An Introduction to Marx's Philosophic and Economic Thought
Manifesto of the Communist Party
Frederick Engels and Karl Marx
Social Contracts of Exploitation
Government in the Future
Contemporary Just War Theory
How can punishment be justified? On Kant’s Retributivism
Unit 5 Supplemental Readings
Plato's Republic Book X
Selected Readings from Aristotle's Poetics
Of the Standard of Taste
Kant's Project: A Short Overview
Laura Mueller, Ph.D.
Immanuel Kant – On the Aesthetic Taste
Selected Readings from Edmund Burke's "A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful"
Unit 6 Supplemental Readings
Selected Reading from Søren Kierkegaard: Fear and Trembling
Selected Readings on Søren Kierkegaard
Existentialism is a Humanism
Selected Reading from Simone de Beauvoir: Introduction to The Second Sex
The Myth of Sisyphus
Selected Readings from and on Friedrich Nietzsche's "Eternal Recurrence"
Unit 7 Supplemental Readings
Fourth Edition Notes
This page will reflect changes made to the Fourth Edition after 8/12/22.
Philosophical Thought Copyright © 2020 by Heather Wilburn / Tulsa Community College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.