1.2. In the following box, list the passages in which ‘however’ has been accurately and appropriately used.
|1||Department of Education noted that state and local officials should have the flexibility to determine appropriate content for a student’s summary, which must be based on the student’s individual needs and postsecondary goals. However, this flexibility must be balanced with the need to assure that students with disabilities, upon leaving high school, have a comprehensive summary of performance (SOP) that promotes self-determination.|
|4||Brazil’s average per capita income had fallen from a peak of 25 percent of the U.S. average in the 1960s to just 16 percent by the late 1990s. In the last decade, however, that number began to climb, and it has now risen to roughly 20 percent.|
|6||It cannot be established with any certainty what happened to the Titanic during its descent to the seabed. However, what is now known is that once the ship disappeared below the ocean’s surface, it broke into three pieces.|
|9||25 Male participants’ favorite brand of cigarettes remained stable across the 5 telephone surveys (2003-2008); however, female participants’ favorite brand changed dramatically after the Camel No. 9 advertising campaign.|
|10||Teachers, students, and tutors responded that some student materials could be clearer; however, overall the clarity of those materials was acceptable.|
1.3 In the following chart list the problematic cases and write down a brief explanation about the problem.
|2||One of the greatest advantages of using technology at schools is that students can communicate with people all over the world. However, in contrast there are also some disadvantages.||The writer is using two transitional devices “however” and “in contrast” to compare two attributes of “using technology.” Only one transition word is necessary in this passage.|
|3||After I finished my first year of college, I decided to move off campus and I saw many differences between living on and off campus. However, there are many differences between living on and off campus that can impact on students’ health, academic performance, and personal comfort.||The writer is not presenting a contrast but adding information about the “many differences” of living in and off campus.|
|5||Nowadays most teachers can optimize instruction by using technology in their classes instead of just talking or using the chalkboard. However, digital devices such as the smartphone have become an essential tool for students.||“Optimize instruction” and “become essential” are not set in comparison with one another, but as different examples of how technology is used by teachers and students.|
|7||Nowadays, students spend a great deal of money on textbooks, however, the idea of replacing textbooks with tablets may be a solution to reduce the cost of education.||Wrong punctuation|
|8||There are many differences between English and Korean, such as their alphabets, grammatical structure, and the use of honorifics. However, it is clear that Korean is harder to learn than English because of its alphabet, grammar, and the use of honorifics.||In the first sentence the writer establishes that A is different from B because of several reasons and mentions three of these differences as an example. The use of however in the second sentence announces a contrast. As such, one would expect that the writer would enlist some similarities between A and B (in spite of the differences previously mentioned), but that does not occur.|
Read the following sentences in which however has been used appropriately and follow the instructions given below:
1) Sentences 1-5 emphasize one main theme. Identify this theme and circle it.
2) Sentences 6-10 emphasize two themes. Identify and circle them.
3) In all of the sentences, two features are in contrast. Identify and underline these features.
4) Work out a rule as to when however should be used.
1. Most items in the questionnaire represent statements to which the students responded to on a four-point modified Likert scale ranging from strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. However, in the last three items, students were requested to give open answers. Theme 1: Most items
Theme 2: The last three items
Contrast: Likert scale vs. open answers
2. Brazil’s average per capita income had fallen from a peak of 25 percent of the U.S. average in the 1960s to just 16 percent by the late 1990s. However, in the last decade, Brazil’s average per capita income began to climb, and it has now risen to roughly 20 percent. One theme: Brazil’s average per capital income
Contrast: decrease vs. increase
3. Department of Education noted that state and local officials should have the flexibility to determine appropriate content for a student’s summary, which must be based on the student’s individual needs and postsecondary goals. However, this flexibility must be balanced with the need to assure that students with disabilities, upon leaving high school, have a comprehensive summary of performance (SOP) that promotes self-determination and productive postschool outcomes. One theme: flexibility
Contrast: necessity vs. restriction
4. Since 2001, student attendance failed to meet the state’s requirements during testing days; however, in 2005, attendance on test days allowed the school to meet the annual attendance objectives as defined by the state. One theme: student attendance during testing days
Contrast: failure to meet the requirement since 2001 vs. success in meeting requirement in 2005
5. For the acceptability of online tutoring procedures, teachers and tutors all reported that the set-up was easy. Teachers, students, and tutors responded that some student materials could be clearer; however, overall the clarity of those materials was acceptable. One theme: student materials
Contrast: imperfect vs. acceptable
6. An important increase in contaminant substances was found in Lake Ontario fish. PCNs have shown a dramatic decline since 1979; however, the levels are still above Ontario’s fish consumption advisory guidelines for dioxin-like compounds. One theme: the levels of PCNs
Contrast: improvement vs. failure to meet the standard
7. The poet Montoro witnessed some of the worst racial violence of his time and was forced to feel from his home in Cordoba (in 1473) during a riot. His poem to Enrique IV voices the frustration of a citizen who had lost hope that the persecution would end. However, his poem dedicated to Isabel illustrates that the presence of the new queen had restored in the poet some degree of optimism for the future. Theme 1: His poem to Enrique IV
Theme 2: His poem to Isabel
Contrast: frustration vs. optimism
8. Usually, it’s better to take a multivitamin supplement with meals. With an empty stomach, you’ll absorb less of those vitamins. However, taking your multivitamin supplement on an empty stomach is much better than not taking it at all. Theme 1: Taking a multivitamin supplement with an empty stomach
Theme 2: Not taking a multivitamin supplement at all
Contrast: bad (absorb less of vitamins) vs. worse
9. If students with ID are auditing a class, then they are not receiving official university credit and are not required to submit assignments. However, if students with ID taking the course for credit, then those students must attempt to master all of the material which other students are expected to learn and submit all assignments as required in the syllabus. Theme 1: Students who audit a class
Theme 2: Students who take a class for credits
Contrast: Responsibilities of auditing a class vs. those of taking a class for credits
10. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 led to the forced relocation of thousands of Indian families from the Southeast to what is now Oklahoma. However, the growth and expansion of the white population has intensified the demand for Indian lands in most areas. Theme 1: Relocation of the Native American population to Oklahoma
Theme 2: Growth of the white population
Contrast: being pushed away from ones’ land vs. demanding other people’s land
Major findings from my research project:
Compares two aspects, X and Y, of one theme, A. X and Y are strikingly different or even opposite. n=21
The however clause contains information that is contrary to the assumption that has been clearly stated/can be easily drawn from the prior text or the shared frame. n=9
Ideas expressed/indicated in the however clause carry more importance, are representative of the writer’s focal point/central argument, and are elaborated in the following discourse. n=27
The most commonly occurring element in the subject position of the however clause is given information, and the majority of the element is Textually Evoked. n=23
In our chapter, we addressed its contrastive function, but we didn’t talk about the concessive function. Information prominence and information structure relevant issues need to be discussed as well.
Compare two aspects (e.g. attributes/states/views), which I call X and Y, of one theme A, and the two aspects are often different from one another or even opposite.