Part 2: Bias, Scope, and Relevance

In addition to using the fact-checking method you learned on the previous page, you should also evaluate your source for bias, scope, and relevancy.


One useful method for determining bias is the C.R.A.P. method. This method is explained below:

C stands for Currency: When was your source published or last updated?
R stands for Reliability: How accurate in the information in your source? (You can use the fact-checking strategies you learned earlier to help answer this question.)
A stands for Authority: Who is the author or publisher of the source? What do you know about them? Do they have a bias? Do they have expertise in the area they are writing about?
P stands for Purpose: What is the writer or publications goal or intention?

Knowing the answers to these questions can help you determine if your source has bias, and what it is. And knowing a source’s bias helps you determine how best to read, interpret, and use the information contained in the source.


Scope refers to the extent to which a source covers a topic, i.e., how much information it contains relevant to your topic. The format and length of a source often dictates the scope. For example, consider how much more in-depth a book about your topic would be, compared to a newspaper article.


It is important that the sources your select provide the information you need and meet the requirements of your assignment. When evaluating the relevance, you  can ask yourself such questions as: Does it answer your questions? What aspect of your topic does it cover? How will you use it in your assignment?

Next, complete “Part 2: Scope and Relevance” on your worksheet, examining a source you have chosen for your assignment to determine potential bias, scope, and relevance.


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ENGL 1113 Online Library Sessions Copyright © 2020 by Holly Reiter and Cristina Colquhoun is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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