VII. Popular Music
- Pop forms can be related to one another through the concepts of and sections.
- Sections can be defined through their formal and harmonic .
Those interested in the connections between pop and classical forms may wish to cross-reference Formal Sections in General.
Sections within Pop Forms
In pop/rock music, a typically spans between 8 and 24 bars and includes 2–4 phrases. (Some auxiliary sections may contain a single phrase.) A section presents a single formal (such as , , , etc.) and presents a complete two-, three-, or four-part pattern. A section typically sets a stanza of lyrics.
Section boundaries are usually made apparent by poetic structure (the end of a couplet or stanza) or by surface features of the song such as:
- a clear rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic arrival
- a change in instrumentation or volume
- a return to the beginning of a previously heard section
For instance, take the transition from a section to a section at 2:42 in U2’s “Pride (In the Name of Love).” The section boundary is delineated by a number of features simultaneously:
- The text closes out the verse’s with a (more-or-less) rhyming lyric (“sky”–”pride”) before beginning a new .
- The end of the verse is signaled by a drum fill, a common end-of-phrase or end-of-section gesture.
- The general dynamic gets louder very quickly.
- The guitar becomes more active and is doubled by a second guitar part.
- The lead vocals rise in register.
- Background vocals are added to the lead vocal part.
All of these features help delineate the boundary between sections, and most of them also give the new section (the chorus) a higher energy level than the previous section (the verse).
Terminology and Basic Concepts
The definitions used here are based on the research of Jay Summach (2012).
: Core sections form the main musical and poetic content of a song. Examples of core sections in pop forms include , , , or sections.
: Auxiliary modules help to frame the core modules, introducing them, providing temporary relief from them, or winding down from them. They can include , , or sections.
: A section or phrase is lyric-variant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) different lyrics.
: A section or phrase is lyric-invariant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) the same lyrics. Lyric invariance tends to come at points of formal closure (tail refrains at the ends of strophes, choruses at the end of a verse-chorus song’s formal cycle).
: A section or phrase is music-variant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) different music.
: A section or phrase is music-invariant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) the same music.
: A phrase or section is on-tonic when it begins with tonic harmony (I in root position).
: A phrase or section is off-tonic when it begins on a harmony other than tonic.
: A phrase or section is harmonically closed when it ends with tonic harmony (I in root position).
: A phrase or section is harmonically open when it ends on a harmony other than tonic.
: The use of a non-tonic chord (usually dominant) at the end of a harmonically closed unit to transition into the beginning of the following on-tonic unit. The song “Woolly Bully” by Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs contains a turnaround at the end of many of its strophes. One of these occurs at 0:54 ― a simple V7 chord to prepare the return of I as the next strophe begins.
: Closing rhetoric involves common patterns and techniques that signal that the end of the song is likely coming soon. Typical patterns and techniques include immediate repetition of a core section (except for the first core section) or part of a core section, thinning out of the texture, late-song intensification, fadeout, and bringing a previously harmonically open section to a point of harmonic closure. Closing rhetoric is typically found in outros, codas, and the last core section of a song (A or C).
What follows are notational conventions for analyses of musical form in this text.
Sections are labeled with capital letters according to function:
- A section that functions as a strophe is labeled with an A
- A section that functions as a bridge is B
- A verse is labeled V
- A chorus is labeled C
- And so on—more sections are introduced in the following chapters.
Phrases are labeled with bolded lowercase letters according to their musical content. If two phrases use more or less the same musical framework (harmony, melody, and rhythm), they receive the same letter. Letters are assigned in the same manner as poetic rhymes: the first phrase is a, and any phrase that follows based on the same music is also a (primes are used for slight variations, such as new text or altered instrumentation); the next phrase with new musical material is b; and so on. These letters do not correspond to functions.
The single exception to this convention is when phrases within a section demonstrate a progression (), in which case the first phrase (statement) is labeled s; restatement/response, r; departure, d; conclusion, c.
- Summach, Jason. 2012. “Form in Top-20 Rock Music, 1955–89.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University.
- Interestingly in this song, the guitarist doesn’t always remember the turnarounds. Notice that at 0:28, the bass and baritone saxophone play the dominant, but the guitarist keeps tonic. At 1:18, the singer yells, “Watch it now! Watch it! Watch it!” as if warning the guitarist not to miss the turnaround in the next bar. He does the same in 2:08. When the guitarist gets the turnaround with the rest of the band, the singer yells, “You got it! You got it!” as if congratulating the guitarist. ↵
Core sections comprise the main musical and poetic content of a song. Core sections include strophe (AABA and strophic form only), bridge, verse, chorus, prechorus, and postchorus.
Auxiliary modules help frame the core modules, introducing them, providing temporary relief from them, or winding down from them.
The role that a musical element plays in the creation of a larger musical unit.
In musical form, this refers to the highest-level division of the overall form of the piece. Examples include the exposition in sonata form, the first part of a binary form, or the chorus of a pop song.
A basic multi-phrase unit. In pop music, a strophe is a focal module within strophic-form and AABA-form songs.
Bridges tend to play a transitional role (neither the point from which to depart, nor the point of arrival) in the formal cycle, generating high expectation for the return of the primary section by contrasting with it and temporarily withholding it. Bridge sections tend to emphasize non-tonic harmonies and commonly end on dominant harmony.
Prechorus function is most significantly typified in energy gain. Prechorus sections often use motivic fragmentation, acceleration of harmonic rhythm, movement away from tonic harmony, and harmonic openness.
Verse sections are lyric-variant and often contain lyrics thatadvance the narrative. Until the 1960s, verse sections tended to be harmonically closed. Beginning in the 1960s, verse sections became more and more likely to be harmonically open (Summach, p. 114). Verses (like strophes) tend to begin on-tonic.
Chorus sections are lyric-invariant and contain the primary lyrical material of the song. Chorus function is also typified by heightened musical intensity relative to the verse, including features like “a more dense or active instrumental texture; prominent background vocals; and/or a higher register melody” (Summach 2012, p. 106). Choruses most frequently (but not exclusively) begin on-tonic.
Chorus sections are distinct from refrains primarily by virtue of their being sections in and of themselves, where refrains are contained within a section.
A group of lyrics that is four lines long.
In lyrics, a stanza is a group of lines of lyrics. In music notation, a stanza is a group of staves that are played simultaneously.
Introduction sections transition from the unmetered silence that precede the song to the musical activity of the first core section. They tend to be short and untexted (i.e., instrumental) and tend to present musical material from one or more core sections to come.
Outros function as a transition from song back to silence, and thus decrease energy. Often this is accomplished in the recording studio by way of a fadeout.
A coda is a song-ending section that presents new material. Like outros, codas exhibit closing rhetoric.
A module or phrase is lyric-variant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) different lyrics.
A module or phrase is lyric-invariant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) the same lyrics. Lyric invariance tends to come at points of formal closure (tail refrains at the ends of strophes, choruses at the end of a verse-chorus song’s formal cycle).
A module or phrase is music-variant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) different music.
A module or phrase is music-invariant if each time it appears it brings (mostly) the same music.
A phrase or module is on-tonic when it begins with tonic harmony (I in root position).
A phrase or module is off-tonic when it begins on a harmony other than tonic.
A phrase or module is harmonically closed when it ends with tonic harmony (I in root position).
A phrase or module is harmonically open when it ends on a harmony other than tonic.
Broadly speaking, a turnaround is the use of a non-tonic chord (usually dominant) at the end of a harmonically closed unit to transition into the beginning of the following on-tonic unit. In jazz, the term "turnaround" often refers to the progression vi–ii–V–I. The exact qualities of these chords is highly variable, and one or more of the chords may be substituted with a different, related chord.
Closing rhetoric involves common patterns and techniques that signal that the end of the song is likely coming soon.
A phrase that differs substantially from the archetypal sentence while still exhibiting some traits of a sentence-structure phrase.
A four-part phrase structure in popular music: statement, restatement, departure, and conclusion. An srdc structure shares many features with the Classical sentence.