II. Counterpoint and Galant Schemas

Mark Gotham

Key Takeaways

• The 16th-century contrapuntal style is related—but not identical—to the principles outlined in .
• This chapter sets out some key principles and practice exercises especially for .

The 16th-century contrapuntal style has historically enjoyed a prominent position in the teaching of music theory. “Pastiche” or “counterfactual” composition of 16th-century imitative choral polyphony (especially in the style of Palestrina) has frequently appeared in curricula and is sometimes conflated with the later, 18th-century notion of which we met in the previous chapters. This chapter sets out some rules of thumb to bear in mind when completing style-composition exercises based on this repertoire where you are given a partial score to complete. At the end, you’ll find a couple of example exercises in this format.

# Imitation

Imitation involves two or more parts entering separately with the same melody, or versions of the same melody. This is a common practice in 16th-century contrapuntal music, particularly for beginning whole movements and large sections in those movements (with the introduction of a new line of text, for instance). You might think of it as a precursor to the later fugue (which we’ll return to in the High Baroque Fugal Exposition chapter).

When completing an exercise involving imitation, observe the following guidelines:

• Identify (potential) points of imitation: In any given part, look for changes of text (often preceded by a comma or rest), and particularly any repetition of text with the same music.
• Pitch interval: The interval between imitative parts at the start of a section or movement is usually a perfect consonance. That said, others are eminently possible, especially later in the movement. Note that we are talking about the primary corresponding interval between the parts and not necessarily the very first pitch. We sometimes see examples of the  typical of the later high Baroque fugue, discussed in the next chapter.
• Meter: Imitate at metrically comparable positions (strong beat → strong beat; weak beat → weak beat).
• When working out what imitative relationships will work, try out all options in both directions, including where this means eliding apparently separate sections.
• Make sure there is meaningful overlap between condsecutively entering imitative parts. To achieve that, shorter points of imitation may require correspondingly shorter intervals between entering parts.
• Consider how much of the point to imitate. How much has been repeated exactly in any given part?
• Consider how closely to imitate the point. Try to preserve at least the rhythm and the distinctive intervals/contour/shape of the point’s opening.
• Remember that phrases and sections can overlap, even at strong cadences.

# Melody

• predominates between parts (partly to maintain independence of lines). Avoid too much parallel writing even of permitted intervals (but note the exceptional case of the “fauxbourdon,” which is an extended passage of parallel $^6_3$ triads).
• Conjunct motion predominates within parts.
• Approach the final by step (in most parts).
• Raise the leading note when approaching the final from below (in most modal contexts, though not Phrygian).
• Melodic intervals:
• Seconds, thirds, fourths, fifths, and octaves are all permitted;
• The status of sixths is more complex. Rising minor sixths are used fairly freely (814 times in the Palestrina masses), rising major sixths are rarer (54 times), and descending sixths are extremely rare (7 descending minor, 1 single case of descending major).
• Sevenths and are avoided. Do not even outline these intervals with successive leaps or by the boundaries (high and low points) of a melodic gesture.
• Successive leaps in the same direction are generally avoided. If you do have such successive leaps, then position the larger leap lower (first when rising, second when descending).
• Large leaps are to be followed (and often preceded) by motion in the opposite direction. This is connected to both the idea of  and regression to the middle of the tessitura.
• Avoid outlining triads as if you were arpeggiating chords.
• Contour: The arch shape is common for melodies (what goes up must come down!).
• Range per part: A common recommendation is to place each voice within an octave, corresponding to either the or ranges of the piece’s mode. But in practice, parts more often span a slightly wider range of 14 semitones. Extremely few parts exceed the twelfth (octave plus fifth), so take that as a maximum.
• Common melodic devices:
• : Suspended notes are to be “prepared” as a consonance on a weak metrical tied to a dissonance (on a strong position) and resolved by moving the suspended dissonant part down a step. For 7–6 and 4–3 suspensions, this involves dissonance in the upper voice; for 2–3 suspension, the dissonance is in the lower voice (as an inversion of 7–6). This is explained further in the chapter on fourth-species counterpoint.
• While not a suspension, the from fifth to sixth is also common.
• Decorations at the end of a phrase are more common than at the beginning.

# Rhythm and Meter

• The original notation for this repertoire lacks bar lines, but metrical thinking is abundantly clear. While modern editions will usually put bar lines in explicitly, remember that these are editorial interventions, not original. Editors may also change the tactus-level note values to be shorter than what was originally notated (from half to quarter notes, for instance). With those caveats borne in mind, the editorial intervention can be helpful—barlines are helpful for rehearsal and for conducting, and some performers may feel more comfortable reading in shorter note values. Editorial choices may also offer subtler hints, such as the use of “longer” meters ($\mathbf{^2_2}$ in place of $\mathbf{^4_4}$) to hint at the possibility of thinking in terms of longer beat, and thus the possibility of longer dissonances, for instance.
• Melodic lines frequently start (and often end) with slower rhythmic movement.
• Half-tactus (quarter-note) movement should begin on weak metrical positions—on an unaccented beat (2 or 4), or between beats (as part of a dotted rhythm).
• connect long notes to shorter ones (not vice versa).
• In the (relatively rare) cases of triple meter, rhythms generally divide into 2+1 rather than 1+2 (as in many styles).

# Text Setting

• Clarity of music and text was held in high regard by many composers of this time.[1]
• Meter: The above caveats notwithstanding, match textual and musical meters by placing strong syllables on “strong beats.” Systematic exceptions follow the conventions outlined above including syncopations, suspensions, and “metrical dissonance” (use of a consistent meter in one part that is contrary to that prevailing in other parts (usually the one notated in modern editions).
• Musical phrases follow the text.
• Typically use least one beat (half note) for each syllable.
• Exceptions include dotted rhythms, where the shorter (quarter) note frequently receives its own syllable. This may be thought of as a modification of a “straight” rhythm, which meets the “one per beat” guideline.
• Syllable changes immediately after sub-tactus (quarter-note) motion are rare.

# Texture

• The appropriate texture is usually clear from the given parts in these exercises.
• To generalize rather crudely, broad conventions for textures in Mass settings are as follows (where I = usually imitative; H = may be [more] homophonic):
• Kyrie (I).
• Gloria (H). The “qui tollis” frequently exists as a separate section.
• Credo (H). Especially often homophonic at important moments. “Crucifixus” separable.
• Sanctus (I). Hosanna (H).
• Benedictus (I). Often for fewer voices. (Second Hosanna usually a repeat of the first.)
• Agnus Dei (I). There may be a second or third Agnus, often with more parts and canons.
• The Magnificat tends to be a freer genre that is more flexible with the points of imitations.

# Harmony

Composers of this era did not think in terms of chords, Roman numerals, inversions, and so on the way that we do today. Instead, they were principally concerned with intervallic relationships among parts. With this in mind, following are some guidelines for the vertical combination of parts in this style.

• and : Avoid, as in later idioms. However, unlike in later idioms, those involving diminished fifths must also be avoided.
• :
• Avoid in principle (some rationalize this on the basis that they imply parallels that would present if the intervening were added).
• More common at cadences and/or when mitigated by strong in one or more other parts.
• :
• Used not infrequently in Palestrina’s music, mostly in first inversion.
• Useful especially as a solution for cadences in multi-part music with $\hat2-\hat1$ motion in the bass, for instance.
• Resolve according to standard voice-leading: re–do, ti–do, fa–mi $(\hat2-\hat1,\ \hat7-\hat8,\ \hat4-\hat3)$.
• Dissonance: types and treatment:
• : preparation (weak beat) – suspension (strong) – resolution (weak).
• “Inessential” dissonances: , at the sub-tactus (quarter-note) level.
• , “changed note”: generally do–ti–sol–la $(\hat8-\hat7-\hat5-\hat6)$. The only case of a dissonance left by leap.
• Final chord: Bare fifth or major triad ().
• The raised (“Picardy”) third “originated c. 1500 when for the first time, the third was admitted in the final chord of a piece … in the second half of the sixteenth century this practice became fairly common” (Apel 1969, 677).
• By Palestrina, major triads are the most common kind of final chord (accounting for around 85% of cases in the Palestrina masses).
• Apel, Willi. “Picardy Third.” 1969. Harvard Dictionary of Music. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Online Resources

In addition to well-known libraries like IMSLP, there are some interesting projects dedicated specifically to Renaissance music.

Assignments
1. Imitative writing in the 16th-century contrapuntal style. These exercises provide at least one complete part for reference, and one part with missing passages to complete in a suitable style. Original note values are used, with modern time signatures for those values ($\mathbf{^4_2}$), some editorial accidentals (), and only G and F clefs.
• Lassus: Benedictus from the Missa Venatorum. 2 voices. .mscz, .pdf
• Lassus: Bicinum IV. 2 voices. .mscz, .pdf
• Palestrina: Benedictus from the Missa Brevis. 3 voices. .mscz, .pdf
• Palestrina: Surge Propera a 4 (excerpt). 4 voices. .mscz, .pdf

1. This is said to be especially true of Palestrina, and further said to have appeased the Council of Trent in its review of recent developments in music.